Uruguay Round Of The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade

Uruguay Round Of The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade

Transparency obligations include the publication of all relevant laws and regulations. The provisions to facilitate the increased participation of developing countries in global trade in services include negotiated commitments to access technologies, improve access to distribution channels and information networks, and liberalize market access in export interest sectors and types of supply. The economic integration provisions are consistent with those in Article XXIV of the GATT, which has “substantial sectoral coverage” and provides for “the absence or elimination of substantial discrimination” between the parties. The protection and support of the agricultural industry began during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Not only have tariffs been increased with most other imported products, but a number of price and income support programmes have been implemented in many countries. When the first GATT agreement was negotiated, specific exemptions were introduced for agriculture, including an allocation for the use of export subsidies. Remember that export subsidies under the anti-subsidy code are subject to retaliatory measures, but this requirement has been denied for agricultural products. This has allowed countries to keep agricultural commodity prices high in the domestic market and, if these prices produced a surplus of food, to reverse that surplus on international markets by using export subsidies. What is mentioned and discussed above is just a few of the agreements negotiated during the Uruguay Round. In addition, each round of trade negotiations provides an excellent forum to address many other topics of particular interest to certain sectors.

Others include the Convention on Health and Plant Health Measures, which contains guidelines for countries on food security and trade in plants and animals; an anti-dumping agreement; Agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures; The Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMS); Agreement on import licensing procedures; The Customs Assessment Agreement; Pre-inspection agreement The Rules of Origin Agreement; and, finally, several multilateral agreements (i.e. not all of which cover) concerning civil aircraft, public procurement and dairy products. The GAO found that the Act (1) should bring economic benefits to the United States as a whole and strengthen international trade, reduce tariffs, strengthen trade dispute settlement procedures, expand GATT principles and strengthen GATT as an institution; (2) Industry analysts believe that the law could increase U.S. national income by $200 billion over a 10-year period; (3) The law may have negative effects on certain sectors of the United States.

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